September 30, 2022

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Venezuelan immigration to South America is now looking at the United States

Pendulum Venezuelan immigration in South America is now looking at the United States
Schneider Mendoza / AFP)

The migration crisis that developed in the United States with the departure of the Venezuelan people is today experiencing a pendulum movement in South America due to a change of government. Barriers to Joe Biden’s administration to Nicolas Maduro’s cabinet.

As of February 8, 2022, about 6,041,690 Venezuelans had fled Venezuela, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM).

Of these, 4,992,215 were distributed in Latin America and the Caribbean, mainly in Colombia (1.8 million), Peru (1.3 million), Ecuador (508,900) and Chile (448,100).

“In these countries, the epidemic has created a pendulum movement outside Venezuela as of 2020 because economic conditions and regulation have become more complex,” Donna Cabrera, author, researcher and international migration consultant, told Efe.

In Latin America, Venezuelan immigrants were vulnerable because different governments did not access the benefits offered by their governments to alleviate the corona virus crisis.

Immediately, Maduro planned to refuel in the Vulta a la Patria, which will help migrants return from 2018, and according to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as of February 22, 2022, only 27,816 people had returned.

The rudder change in South America

For South America, the expectation of what the Venezuelan people will be like after the change of direction of the Peruvian and Chilean governments and the presidential election is one of the reasons for the pendulum movement for migration. Next May 29 in Colombia.

“The new presidents and their migration vision and the way Venezuelans are integrating immigrants and refugees will have a strong impact on the movement of these people through the region,” Cabrera clarified.

The Peruvian president, Pedro Castillo, has already warned during his inauguration on July 28, 2021: “It will be 72 hours from the date foreign criminals leave the country.”

Although the racist touch of these words makes the Venezuelan people feel very bad, the truth is, their return to the homeland is not on a large scale.

“Estimates indicate that about 500 people leave Peru every day, crossing the northern border to Tumbes, while daily income exceeds 1,200,” UNHCR spokesman Federico Luis Augusti told Efe.

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For Oscar Perez, leader of the Venezuelan Union in Peru, another factor involved in the IDP movement is the “disproportionate” fines imposed on those who do not extend their residency in a timely manner.

“It obviously leads some people to want to leave because they can’t afford this fine,” Perez declared, recalling that on average, Venezuelans earn an average of 31 feet (about $ 8) a day. 46 feet per day (about $ 12.2).

According to him, Gabriel Borick, who became president of Chile on March 11, proposed establishing quotas in regional countries to receive immigrants.

However, now the crisis does not understand diplomacy. The same thing is happening in Colshen, a poor city on the Chilean border with Bolivia that has no supermarkets, banks, adequate medical services or sewerage, but is estimated to receive between 200 and 330 foreigners daily.

There, the business created by the irregular migration, along with the abuses of the coyotes and the criminal organizations that promote it, has caused severe economic pressure, insecurity and racism since February this year.

The same thing happened in the neighboring town of Iquique, where groups of truckers stopped traffic and demanded action after several violent incidents involving foreigners.

Moreover, of Colombia’s 1.8 million Venezuelans, 96% use the provisional protection law.

This is “one of the biggest challenges” in enabling and contributing to the comprehensive and robust processes that allow immigrants to meet their needs and make them an integral part of our country’s social map. “Economic and social development,” said Judith Carvajal, director of the Colombian Red Cross.

In this regard, Colombian Vice President and Foreign Minister Marta Lucia Ramirez said the government was trying to change the criteria for handling migration in the country, which in his view should go from “humanitarian aid to socio-economic content”.

Back home

While Maduro insists on recalling his comrades because of the alleged prosperity the country is experiencing, experts are magically describing the situation as rising prices and the proliferation of businesses dedicated to the sale of imported goods. The great majority ..

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Nevertheless, the report “Finding the Human Rights Situation of Venezuelan Immigrants and Refugees in the Argentine Republic” makes it clear that the will of the majority is to return to their homeland.

Of those interviewed, “83% said they emigrated without being able to meet their basic needs. Therefore, as the economic situation improves, there will be more incentives for Venezuelans who cannot afford to enter the economy to return to Venezuela, ”commented Ana Paula Benzasade from the National Council for Science and Technology. Research.

However he acknowledged that their numbers were not enough to defeat Venezuela’s political situation and violence.

American dream

Considering the difficulties in Latin America, Venezuela has taken a new direction: from 256,000 in 2015 to 423,000 in 2019.

“We’re collapsed, we had to extend the hours, and we’re looking for volunteers to extend the days of focus,” stressed Patricia Andrade, head of the Rice program, which helps Venezuelans coming to Miami.

According to her, saying that the Venezuelan people are returning to their country is “a tactic of the regime” because the administrator will not return to enter the United States if they are not allowed to stay, he said.

Precisely, in 2021 the government of US President Joe Biden approved the Temporary Protected Status (DPS) for Venezuela, which grants residence and work permits for 18 months until September 2022.

According to the Citizenship and Immigration Service, from its launch in March to December last year, 220,000 Venezuelans have applied for TPS, and an estimated 323,000 can access the program.

Evidence that the deportation is increasing is that in January 2021 there were 205 Venezuelans on the border between Mexico and the United States, and that number rose to 25,000 in December.

This boom is partly explained by the fact that Biden, who arrived at the White House in January 2021, maintained the sanctions imposed on his predecessor Donald Trump by Caracas, which is beginning to give way to Venezuela’s main economic machine, which particularly affects the oil sector. Their hand was twisted after Russia’s occupation of Ukraine.

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As the United States boycotted Russian crude oil, oil prices soared and contributed to the already high inflation in the country, with Washington looking for alternatives to maintain supply.

As a result, for the first time in many years, a high-level delegation led by Juan Gonzalez, a consultant to the White House in Latin America, traveled to Venezuela this month to meet with Maduro, who is not yet recognized by the United States. President.

One of the objectives is to assess the feasibility of partially removing oil barriers and facilitating Venezuelan crude flow in international markets.

“Clearly the main driver of oil inflows. That effort seems to have been paralyzed by opposition from both Republicans and Democrats as petrol prices soared in the United States during the election year,” said Eric Farnsworth of the U.S. Think Tank Council. Assembly elections in November.

Farnsworth told the FA that over time, Biden would seek a “higher exchange agenda” with Venezuela for oil in exchange for the lifting of sanctions.

Despite this, Venezuela’s oil production today is only 800,000 barrels a day, and there is not much room to increase it in the short term without making significant investments in the Caribbean.

In contrast, Russia produces more than 11 million barrels a day, so the impact of Venezuela’s reintroduction of crude oil into the world market is small.

George Gill Angel from Bogot, Alfonso Fernண்டndez Sanchez from Washington, Ana Rosa Mencotti from Miami, Rodrigo Garcia Melaro from Buenos Aires, Carla Chamonca Rozello from Peru, and Cebello Bello from Venezuela.

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